Does it bother you when you open a new Finder window and it doesn’t show up where you expect or in the right view? Here’s how you fix that. Press Command-N, and get the window looking exactly as you want it in terms of position, size, and view type. Then, before doing anything else, close that window with Command-W, and then press Command-N again. The window should appear as you wish, but if it doesn’t, repeat the process of customizing and closing it again—sometimes it takes two tries for the Finder to realize it should remember your settings.
Apple puts all sorts of apps into your Mac’s Dock by default, but if you find that you never use some of those items, like Siri, Launchpad, or Maps, don’t be shy about removing them. It’s your Dock! To remove an app’s icon from the Dock, simply click it and drag it far enough off the Dock that a Remove tag appears above the icon. Let go and the icon disappears—if the app is running, the icon won’t disappear until you quit the app. There’s no downside to removing items since it’s so easy to add them merely by dragging apps back to the Dock. Most apps are found in the Applications folder.
Out of the box, icons on your Desktop are 64 pixels square. That’s a fine middle-of-the-road choice, but if your eyes aren’t what they used to be, you might prefer larger icons. Or, if you store a lot of files and folders on your Desktop, smaller icons may let you arrange everything more comfortably. To change the size of icons on the Desktop, click anywhere on the Desktop background, and then choose View > Show View Options. Use the Icon Size slider at the top to increase or decrease the icon size, and play with the Grid Spacing slider to see if it improves how your icons arrange themselves in a useful way. You can also choose whether icons preview their contents, change the size and position (bottom or right) of icon names, and display additional info about some items underneath their names.